Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes

Facts about Type 2 Diabetes

  • About 347 million people worldwide have diabetes
  • Diabetes is predicted to become the 7th leading cause of death in the world by the year 2030
  • 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries

Research scope in Type 2 Diabetes

  • Metformin can be nephrotoxic, but very limited clinical research done on this. Recent experiments have suggested such effectsmore
  • No appropriate treatment available to treat erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients. Adipose derived stem cells plus insulin has shown improvement but that too in streptozotocin-induced diabetic ratsmore
  • One evergreen tree named “Neolamarckia cadamba” holds strong medicinal potential including diabetes, anaemia, cancer and infections but literature on its study is scantymore
  • Molecular mechanisms by which fibroblast cells are damaged in the skin of patients with diabetes mellitus resulting in skin ulcers are still need to be understoodmore

Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes

  • Physical activity (PA) is neuroprotective and reduces the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), more…
  • Dietary coconut udeful for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, more…
  • Higher education is protective from Alzheimer disease, more…
  • Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, wine consumption, coffee consumption, and regular physical activity were associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease, more…

Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes

  • Currently available treatments for AD (donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine and memantine) are symptomatic and do not decelerate or prevent the progression of the disease, more…
  • Medications for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, more
  • NICE UK guidelines for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, more…

Risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes

  • Chronic aluminum intake causes Alzheimer’s disease…more
  • A history of migraines increased the risk of Alzheimer’s disease…more
  • The risk of Alzheimer’s increased with the number of risk factors (diabetes + hypertension + heart disease + current smoking)…more
  • Head trauma is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease…more
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) as a strong risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease when it is present in brain of carriers of the type 4 allele of the gene for apolipoprotein E (APOE-4)…more

Systematic reviews

  1. The pharmacogenetics of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review….more
  2. Cinnamon use in type 2 diabetes: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis…more
  3. Dapagliflozin treatment for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials…more
  4. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of pioglitazone in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus…more
  5. Coffee to reduce risk of type 2 diabetes?: a systematic review…more

Treatment with Medicinal Herbs

  • Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) – Dose, 1 tsp leaf/cup water; 5 g leaf/day; 2-5 g leaf (1 tsp = 1.4 g) or in tea; 2-5 ml liquid leaf extract; 2-5 ml liquid leaf extract (1:1 in 25% ethanol) 3x/day; 5-6 g root 3 x/day
  • Damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd) – Dose, 1-2 (400 mg) capsules; 400-800 mg capsules 3x/day; 2-3 ml tincture 3x/day; 1 dropperful tincture; 2-4 g shoot as tea 3x/day

Reference: Handbook of Medicinal Herbs (2006)

Herbals

There are no bad foods in diabetes, just bad diets

Diabetics often find it challenging to get a completely balanced and nutritional meal. Often, they think avoiding rice is the key to controlling their sugar level. “This is a mistake because diabetics need to have carbohydrates for energy and it is important that they segregate the carbohydrate-loading,” says Sime Darby Medical Centre, Subang Jaya, Selangor, dietetics and food services manager Nurul Aziah Musa. “Breakfast is still the most important meal of the day and should be consumed within two hours of waking up. It’s harder to lose weight without breakfast. More at: http://www.star2.com/

Why the obese are prone to diabetes: a protein gives a clue

It is commonly known that obese, or overweight, people face a much greater risk of acquiring diabetes. It is not just a statistical link. Following several years of research, scientists have been able to show that the extra fat accumulated around the organs in an obese person is somehow associated with improper functioning of the naturally produced insulin hormone, leading to faulty sugar uptake by cells and high sugar amounts in blood, eventually leading to diabetes. Insulin, which is produced by the pancreas, performs the important function of promoting glucose, or other forms of sugar in our food, to enter our body cells where the sugar is converted into energy. But why the function of insulin becomes faulty in an obese person is not known properly. More at: http://indianexpress.com/

No blood, just sweat and tears for diabetes care

Copper-based sensor capable of measuring glucose levels from body fluids other than blood. Managing complex conditions such as diabetes could be made cheaper and simpler following development of a copper film that can detect glucose from body fluids containing salt, such as sweat or tears. Researchers at the University of Wollongong’s (UOW) Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials (ISEM) have demonstrated the first reported construction of copper with a sponge-like porous structure, which can also quickly and accurately detect glucose in salt-based fluids. More at: http://phys.org/

Diabetes: Key to faster-acting insulin found in snail venom

Researchers from Australia and the United States have discovered that the venom of Conus geographus contains a highly efficient natural protein – called Con-Ins G1 – that operates faster than human insulin. They also found that the protein is able to bind to human insulin receptors, suggesting it could work as a treatment for diabetes. The team reports the findings in the journal Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. More at: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/

Antibiotics Use Linked to Type 1 Diabetes in Mice: Study

The researchers found that in male mice, the higher antibiotic exposure early in life “accelerated the diabetes and even enhanced it.” About twice as many mice came down with diabetes than in the control group. They didn’t see this effect with the lower dose of antibiotics. The antibiotics did change the composition of the microbiome in the mice and the census of bugs living there. They also changed gene expression in the mice’s intestine, “the place where the microbiome meets the body,” The researchers also saw negative shifts in metabolism — particularly in all the genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Doctors should think carefully about whether their young patient really needs a course of antibiotics. More at: http://time.com/4463104

Common diabetes drug may help weight loss in autistic kids

A drug commonly used as the front-line treatment for Type-2 diabetes may also be effective in reducing weight in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), finds a study. ASD is a serious developmental disorder that impairs the ability to communicate and interact. Individuals suffering from autism spectrum disorder take atypical antipsychotics drugs to treat symptoms of irritability and agitation. These drugs often increases their appetite as well as weight, thus raising a long-term risk of diabetes. The study explored the effectiveness of metformin drug in counteracting weight gain associated with antipsychotics. The findings showed that, overall, metformin was well tolerated, and reduced Body Mass Index (BMI) scores from the initial baseline. More at: http://indianexpress.com/

Novel Glucokinase Activator Shown Effective, Safe for Type 2 Diabetes

vTv Therapeutics announced positive topline results from the Phase 2b AGATA study of the glucokinase activator, TTP399, for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. AGATA (Add Glucokinase Activator to Target A1c) was a double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, parallel group clinical trial evaluating TTP399 in 190 patients with Type 2 diabetes on a stable dose of metformin. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in HbA1c at 6 months. More at: http://www.empr.com/

Blood pressure lower than recommended level is beneficial in type 2 diabetes

Systolic blood pressure lower than 140 mm Hg is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes, according to data published in BMJ. Samuel A  Eryd, PhD, from the Center of Registers Västra Götaland, University of Gotenburg, and Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg, Sweden, and colleagues conducted  a population-based cohort study that included 187,106 patients with type 2 diabetes who were registered in the Swedish national diabetes register. The researchers sought to compare cardiovascular risk among individuals with blood pressure levels that meet current recommendations with the risk in individuals with lower blood pressure levels.More at: http://www.clinicaladvisor.com/

Higher BMI linked to increased risk for diabetes, but not heart attack or death

WASHINGTON – Higher BMI can influence the development of a range of health problems, though researchers in a recent study could not confirm previously recognized links between obesity and risk for heart attack or death. Researchers at Umea University in Sweden found in a study of identical twins that while a higher BMI increases risk for type 2 diabetes, they did not find evidence it also increases risk for heart attack or death. BMI is calculated by a person’s height and weight, and has been found to be a good predictor of risk for heart disease, high blood pressure, gallstones and certain cancers, according to the National Institutes for Health. More at: http://www.upi.com/Health_News

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Statins may RAISE the chances of diabetes: Cholesterol-lowering pills increase the likelihood of the condition – but doctors say the benefits ‘outweigh the risks’

Statins, which lower the ‘bad’ form of cholesterol, could increase the risk of diabetes, a study suggests. Scientists found that people with naturally lower levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were less likely to develop heart disease. But they were slightly more vulnerable to type 2 diabetes. As statins reduce LDL levels they will have the same effect, they believe. They also found boosting levels of ‘good’ cholesterol may protect against type 2 diabetes – meaning one day this could prevent or treat the condition. More at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health

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