Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

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Facts about Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (also known as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, NHL, or sometimes just lymphoma) is a cancer that starts in cells called lymphocytes.
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women in the United States.
  • In the United States, accounting for about 4% of all cancers. The American Cancer Society’s most recent estimates for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma for 2016 are: About 72,580 people (40,170 males and 32,410 females) will be diagnosed with NHL.

Research scope in Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

  • A20 may be a potential therapeutic target for DLBCL.
  • Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNA, which can regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNA profiling has shown a great potential as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.
  • Antiviral therapy alters the prognosis of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but patterns of lymphoma-directed therapy in the community are unknown.
  • Iatrogenic immunosuppression is a strong risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) but the dose-related association between individual immunosuppressive agents and NHL risk is unknown. 

Treatment for Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

  • This offers great potential for curcumin to be used in conjunction with radiotherapy for NHL in order to increase the efficiency of the treatment.
  • Combination strategies with bendamustine in first-salvage HL and with R-CHP in first-line DLBCL appear very promising.
  • Gambogic acid (GA) is a potent anti-tumor agent that can be used fortherapy against B-cell NHL, especially against those with an abundance of SRC-3.
  • Obinutuzumab plus bendamustine followed by obinutuzumab maintenance has improved efficacy over bendamustine monotherapy in rituximab-refractory patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with manageable toxicity, and is a new treatment option for patients who have relapsed after or are no longer responding to rituximab-based therapy.

Prevention of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

  • Lavender extract can be regarded as a potential anti-cancer agent.
  • Statin administration is associated with a lower risk of subsequent NHL.
  • Diets high in n3 fatty acids and total seafood ARE inversely associated with risk.
  • Higher intakes of vegetables, lutein and zeaxanthin, and zinc are associated with a lower NHL risk.
  • Long-term users of statins showed a statistically significant reduction in the risk of all hematological malignancies taken together (0.78; 0.71-0.87).
  • Prevention and treatment of HCV and HBV infection may diminish NHL incidence, notably in areas with high prevalence of hepatitis viruses infection.

Risk factors for Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

  • Long-term exposure to elevated nitrate levels in drinking water may contribute to the risk of NHL.
  • Risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is higher in after tuberculosis diagnosed a long time ago.
  • Lifetime vigorous-intensity physical activity was associated with a significantly reduced risk of NHL.
  • Study has proven links between DDT, lindane, permethrin, diazinon and terbufos with NHL subtypes.
  • According to studies, there are positive associations of NHL risk with dairy products and fried red meat and the inverse association with fruits and vegetables suggest that diet affects NHL risk.
  • Meta-analysis indicates that consumption of red and processed meat may be related to NHL risk.
  • Cigarette smoking seems to be associated with increased lymphoma risk, especially HL and T-NHL.
  • Diabetes is associated with a moderately increased risk of NHL.
  • Excess body weight is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, especially of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Systematic reviews

  • Consumption of poultry and eggs may be not related to NHL risk…more
  • Male farmers residing in the United States have a slightly elevated risk of contracting NHL…more
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated by Rituximab combined CHOP chemotherapy can produce a positive therapeutic effect in China…more
  • LEP A19G polymorphism is associated with decreased risk of NHL…more

References

Risk scope

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  • Cancer. 2016 Jun 23. doi: 10.1002/cncr.30112. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Br J Haematol. 2016 May 2. doi: 10.1111/bjh.14083. [Epub ahead of print]

Risk factors

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  • Br J Cancer. 2001 Jan 5;84(1):113-5
  • Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 May;24(5):873-7
  • PLoS One. 2014 Oct 22;9(10):e109332
  • Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Feb;14(2):512-20
  • Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Nov;94(45)
  • Eur J Cancer Prev. 2013 Mar;22(2):131-50
  • Diabetes Care. 2008 Dec;31(12):2391-7
  • Int J Cancer. 2007 Oct 1;121(7):1564-70

Prevention

  • Iran J Cancer Prev. 2013 Autumn; 6(4): 201–208
  • PLoS One. 2015 Oct 1;10(10)
  • J Nutr. 2013 May;143(5):672-81
  • Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6):1401-10
  • Cancer Med. 2015 May;4(5):770-80
  • Infect Agent Cancer. 2016 Jun 23;11:27

Treatment

  • Oncol Rep. 2013 Jan;29(1):380-6
  • Expert Rev Hematol. 2016 Jul 14:1-14. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Eur J Pharmacol. 2016 Jun 28. pii: S0014-2999(16)30407-1. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.06.048. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Lancet Oncol. 2016 Jun 23. pii: S1470-2045(16)30097-3. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(16)30097-3. [Epub ahead of print]            

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