Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction

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Facts about Myocardial infarction

  • An estimated 17.3 million people died from CVD; 30% of all deaths.
  • There are 32.4 million myocardial infarctions and strokes worldwide every year.
  • Globally 11% of all disease burden and in developed countries is caused by raised blood pressure.
  • Survivors of MI are at increased risk of recurrent infarctions and have an annual death rate of 5% – six times that in people of the same age who do not have coronary heart disease. Similarly, patients who have suffered a stroke remain at an increased risk of a further stroke (about 7% per annum).

Research scope in Myocardial infarction

  • Shiftwork is associated with myocardial infarction in both men and women. The mechanism is unclear, but the relation cannot be explained by job strain, smoking, or job education level.
  • Mechanisms for Panax ginseng’s cardioprotective effect against ischemia reperfusion injury involve the estrogen-mediated pathway, but little is known about the role of androgen.
  • Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric, protects against myocardial injury by alleviating oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis. However, the role of curcumin and its mechanism of action on interstitial fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI) are poorly understood.

Treatment for Myocardial infarction

  • Low-dose ASA could be cheap and safe as first-aid therapy in myocardial infarction suspects.
  • Adjunctive trimetazidine therapy has a beneficial effect upon total major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in acute MI patients.
  • Statin therapy initiated at the time of elective percutaneous coronary intervention significantly reduces myocardial infarction.
  • High-dose RSV preloading can significantly improve myocardial perfusion and reduce both MACE and PMI in patients undergoing PCI.

Prevention of Myocardial infarction

  • Smoking cessation after myocardial infarction is associated with a significant decrease in mortality.
  • MiRNAs, especially miR-499 and miR-133a, may be suitable for use as diagnostic biomarkers of myocardial infarction.
  • AGT M235T polymorphism could be a prediction marker for risk of MI in Asians.
  • Intake of very long-chain n-3 fatty acids as reflected in adipose tissue content is inversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction.
  • Meta-analysis provides evidence that consumption of green tea is associated with favorable outcomes with respect to risk of cardiovascular and ischemic related diseases.
  • Red ginseng extract increased CD34(+) , CXCR4(+) and CD117(+) circulating angiogenic cell mobilization and decreased inflammation in AMI patients
  • Moderate consumption of wine seems to be associated with lower incidence of CVE and total mortality as compared with non drinkers.

Risk factors for Myocardial infarction

  • Smoking, family history, and oral contraceptive use, appears as risk factors for developing Crohn’s disease.
  • Sleep disturbance was associated with an increased risk of disease flares in CD (Crohn’s disease) but not ulcerative colitis [UC]).
  • Appendectomy is associated with an increased risk of Crohn’s disease that is dependent on the patient’s sex, age, and the diagnosis at operation.
  • Adolescent diet is associated with risk of CD, but not UC, offering insights into disease pathogenesis
  • Patients with Crohn’s disease had lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations compared with their healthy counterparts, and more than half of them have hypovitaminosis D
  • In children, the rs1893217 polymorphism appeared to confer susceptibility to CD (OR = 1.56, 95 % CI, 1.28-1.89, I (2) = 0 %)
  • Frequent use of NSAIDs but not aspirin seemed to be associated with increased absolute incidence of CD and UC.

Systematic reviews

  • When supplemented alone, vitamin E reduces myocardial infarction in interventional trials while it appears ineffective when associated with other antioxidants…more
  • Vitamin D supplementation might protect against cardiac failure in older people but does not appear to protect against MI or stroke…more
  • The study observed increasing risk of ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and early death with decreasing plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels…more

References

Research scope

  • Occup Environ Med. 1999 Jan; 56(1): 46–50
  • Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:817826
  • Drug Des Devel Ther. 2016 Mar 29;10:1267-77

Risk factors

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  • J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2011 Jul-Sep;23(3):10-3
  • Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Sep;82(3):624-32
  • J Periodontal Res. 2005 Feb;40(1):36-42
  • Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2013 Dec;17(12):857-63
  • J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005 Jan;59(1):23-30
  • PLoS One. 2015 Jul 31;10(7)

Prevention

  • Arch Intern Med. 2000 Apr 10;160(7):939-44
  • PLoS One. 2014 Feb 12;9(2)
  • J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2014 Sep;15(3):294-300
  • Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000 Aug;54(8):618-25.
  • Int J Cardiol. 2016 Jan 1;202:967-74
  • Phytother Res. 2011 Feb;25(2):239-49
  • Int J Cardiol. 2013 Mar 10;163(3):282-7

Treatment

  • J Intern Med. 1989 Nov;226(5):303-10
  • Cardiology. 2016 Jul 15;135(3):188-195
  • Am J Cardiol. 2007 Sep 15;100(6):919-23
  • Lipids Health Dis. 2015 Aug 27;14:97

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