Facts about Leishmaniasis

  • Leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania parasites which are transmitted by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandflies
  • An estimated 900 000–1.3 million new cases and 20 000 to 30 000 deaths occur annually.
  • Only a small fraction of those infected by Leishmania parasites will eventually develop the disease.
  • Leishmaniasis remains a public health problem worldwide, affecting approximately 12 million people in 88 countries; 50 000 die of it each year.

Research scope in Leishmaniasis

  • Arginase is an enzyme of the polyamine biosynthesis pathway that is important to parasite infectivity, and it could be useful to develop new approaches for treating leishmaniasis....more
  • Serodiagnosis of HTL is a great challenge due to many biological factors, including hampered specificity and/or sensitivity....more
  • Study highlight the importance of studying B-1 CDP cells as phagocytic cells that can participate and contribute to immunity to parasites....more
  • IgDhiregulatory B cells represent a novel regulatory B cell that may precipitate T cell exhaustion during Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL)...more
  • The early diagnosis of asymptomatic, acute, and subclinical Leishmania infections remains a challenge for controlling visceral leishmaniasis (VL)...more
  • Trypanothione synthetase (TryS) qualifies as an attractive drug target candidate...more
  • Trials on how best to deliver preventive chemotherapy were particularly rare...more

Treatment for Leishmaniasis

  • Duration of treatment is significantly shorter and total dose is lesser with intralesional compared to oral chloroquine in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis....more
  • Treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis: a systematic review of clinical studies done in India, 1980-2004.more
  • Current challenges: availability of drugs, cost of treatment (drugs and hospitalization), efficacy, adverse effects, and growing parasite resistance....more
  • Combination therapy (liposomal amphotericin B + oral miltefosine) will ultimately became the best drug regimen for treating Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in many parts of the world...more
  • Treatment Strategies for Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis...more

Prevention of Leishmaniasis

  • Vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis: A review...more
  • Preventative Methods: Animal Reservoir Control by use of animal elimination, canine vaccines, use of insecticides on dogs; Vector Population Control by insecticide spraying; and Human Reservoir Control by barrier nets, insecticide-impregnated fabrics such as curtains, clothing and bed sheets, and use of soap containing insecticide...more
  • Application of novel strategies based on advances in genetics, genomics, advanced delivery systems, and high throughput screenings for leishmanicidal compounds would lead to improvement of prevention and treatment of this disease...more
  • A policy for leishmaniasis with respect to the prevention and control of drug resistance...more
  • The results suggest that regular use of 65% permethrin during months of high risk for canine visceral leishmaniasis can be a useful strategy for reducing the prevalence of this disease in hyperendemic areas...more
  • Vector and reservoir control for preventing leishmaniasis...more

Risk factors for Leishmaniasis

  • Cattle might serve as source of L. donovani infection for humans...more
  • Sleeping without bed nets, ownership of a dog and cattle ownership (living close to a barn and storage of dried dung according univariate analyses) were associated with a significantly increased risk of leishmania infection...more
  • Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) has a high mortality rate in adults from endemic urban areas, especially when coinciding with high rates of HIV/AIDS co-infection...more
  • Living in houses with cracked wall (OR = 6.4; 95% Cl: 1.6-25.6), increased family size (OR = 1.3; 95% Cl: 1.0-1.8) and the number of days spent in the farm field (OR = 1.1; 95% Cl: 1.0-1.2) are risk factor for VL...more
  • Exposure to L. intermedia sand flies skews the human immune response, facilitating L. braziliensis
    survival in vitro, and increases the risk of developing CL.

Systematic reviews

  • Treatment of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis–a systematic review with a meta-analysis...more
  • Efficacy of thermotherapy to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials...more
  • Molecular tools for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis: systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy…more
  • Accuracy of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction: systematic literature review and meta-analysis...more
  • A meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of the direct agglutination test and rK39 dipstick for visceral leishmaniasis...more

Treatment with Medicinal Herbs

  • Cockscomb (Celosia argentea) – Dose – 4-15 g fl; 3-15 g seed in decoction
  • Barberry (Berberis vulgaris) – Dose – 2-4 g tincutre; 1.5-3 tsp tincture 3x/day; 2-3 g fl extract; 20-40 drops 1:10 bark tincture; 2-4 ml liquid bark; 1-2 tbsp fresh barl/day; 2 g bark/250 ml water
  • Drosera, Round-Leaved Sundew – Dose – 1-2 g dry leaf as tea 3x/day; 0.5-2 ml liquid leaf extract (1:1 in 25% ethanol) 3 x/day; 0.5-1.0 ml herb tincture (1:5 ml in 60% alcohol) 3x/day
  • Colombo (Jateorhiza palmata) – Dose – 0.5- 2 g/day; 1 tsp decoction every 2 hours ; 5 colombo wine; 20 drops liquid extract

Reference: Handbook of Medicinal Herbs (2006)


HN4Leishmaniasis Ruins Afghan Women’s Lives

Sitting in the government-run Leishmaniasis Treatment Centre in Khost, 22-year-old Rahima covered her hand with her scarf. She said that she was sick of being stared at and insulted because of the open sore on her hand, a sign of leishmaniosis infection. “I have hidden my hand because people are horrible to me,” Rahima said, explaining that she was poor and lived in a village. She knew little about leishmaniasis apart from the fact that it was transmitted to human beings by a kind of fly. “In the past, medicine and mosquito nets were distributed free by government and some organisations, but now we have to pay for them,” Rahima continued. ”I come from a big family and when we tell our men that we need mosquito nets, they say that we don’t have money because every mosquito net costs 10 dollars.” More at: https://iwpr.net/global-voices

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