Hodgkin lymphoma

Hodgkin Lymphoma

step0001

Definition

  • Hodgkin lymphoma is the cancer of white blood cells (cancer of lymphatic system which is part of immune system). Typical symptoms include fever, night sweats, weight loss, and non-painful presence of enlarged lymph nodes (in neck, underarm, and groin). Major cause is unknown, however mutations and Epstein-Barr virus seems to play role. It can develop at any stage but mostly affects young adults in 20s and 30s. The only way to diagnose is biopsy. It is a type aggressive cancer which can quickly spread in the body. Over 85% people live at least five years.

Epidemiology and burden of Hodgkin Lymphoma

  • Hodgkin’s lymphoma is an uncommon disorder with an annual incidence of 2–3 per 100000 in Europe and the USA. (R. K. Thomas, D. Re, T. Zander, J. Wolf & V. Diehl. Epidemiology and etiology of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Germany)
  • Unlike other cancers, Hodgkin lymphoma shows different trends and incidence is highest in young adults and the elderly (September 2014). Incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma peaks in people in their 20s. (https://www.cancercare.on.ca/cms/one.aspx?pageId=9784)
  • Globally, Hodgkin’s Lymphoma represents about 11% of all lymphoma diagnoses. Approximately 8,000 cases (4,400 males and 3,820 females) of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma are detected per year which represents less than 1% of all cancers. (http://www.lymphomainfo.net/hodgkins/incidence.html)

Treatment for Hodgkin Lymphoma

  • First Line Treatment of Advanced Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma with Six Cycles of BEACOPP Results in Superior Overall Survival Compared to ABVD. (Blood 2012 120:551)
  • Study shows that administration of chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy as initial therapy for HL decreases overall SMR by reducing relapse and need for salvage therapy. (Ann Oncol.2006 Dec;17(12):1749-60)
  • Low-dose pembrolizumab is highly efficacious, achieving responses with minimal toxicity and at much lower costs. Toxicity is virtually absent, with only grade 1 diarrhea and eczema each observed in one patient. (Ann Hematol.2017 Jan 31. doi: 10.1007/s00277-017-2931-z)
  • Brentuximab vedotin BV produces high responses (62.7%) with encouraging progression free (1-years rate 47.6%) and overall survival (1-years rate 79.5%) in relapsed/refractory HL patients. (Expert Opin Biol Ther.2016 Jun;16(6):739-45)

Prevention of Hodgkin Lymphoma

  • Study shows the favorable effect on HL. Compared with nondrinkers, the pooled relative risks were 0.71 (95% CI, 0.57-0.89) for light (i.e. ≤1 drink/day) and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.60-0.87) for moderate-to-heavy (i.e. >1 drink/day) alcohol drinking. (Eur J Cancer Prev.2012 May;21(3):268-73)
  • The risk of Hodgkin’s lymphoma associated decreases with regular aspirin use and found to be statistically significantly lower (odds ratio [OR] = 0.60, 95%CI= 0.42 to 0.85) (J Natl Cancer Inst (2004) 96 (4): 305-315)
  • Study says that increased UVR exposure may protect against HL, particularly EBV-positive HL. (2013 Nov 14;122(20):3492-9)

Risk factors for Hodgkin Lymphoma

  • The study concludes that there is a link between the 19p13.3 locus, including TCF3, and HL risk. (Nat Commun.2014 Jun 12;5:3856)
  • Exposure to the insecticide Chlorpyrifos increases the risk of Hodgkin lymphoma[OR (95% CI) = 1.19 (1.03, 1.37)] (J Agromedicine.2012 Jan;17(1):30-9)
  • Study shows that exposure to as yet unidentified elements of the Israeli environment increase the risk of nodular sclerosis HL, and should aid in directing research efforts. (Leuk Lymphoma.2017 Apr;58(4):959-968)
  • Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) might have causative role in Hodgkin lymphoma in children in North India. (Eur J Cancer.2007 Jan;43(1):161-8)
  • Meta-analysis suggests that the IL-10-1082A>G polymorphism is weakly associated with altered susceptibility to lymphoma. (Cancer Biomark. 2014;14(5):381-8)

Systematic reviews

  • Health-related quality of life in Hodgkin lymphoma: a systematic review…more
  • Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Hodgkin lymphoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis…more
  • Fatigue in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors: a systematic review…more
  • Classical Hodgkin’s Lymphoma In Adults: Guidelines…more
  • Guidelines for the first line management of classical Hodgkin lymphoma…more
  • Uptake of systematic reviews and meta-analyses based on individual participant data in clinical practice guidelines…more
  • Recent advances in the management of Hodgkin lymphoma…more

Please Login to Comment on This Article..