Facts about Gallstone

  • Gallstone disease is common and costly, creating over 700,000 cholecystectomies annually. Its complications consume approximately $6.5 billion in the United States.
  • Gallstone disease is a common disorder all over the world. In the Western societies about 80 % of the gallstones are composed primarily of cholesterol.

Research scope in Gallstone

  • The study demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease among patients with gallstone disease…..more
  • Only few determinants of gallstone formation have been identified in cohort studies…..more
  • The relationship between different lifestyle factors and the risk of needing cholecystectomy for gallstone disease is not clear….more
  • Carriers of ABCB4 rs1202283, rs2230028 are at an increased risk for gallstone disease, while ABCB4 rs2230028 is associated with asymptomatic gallstone disease...more
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) can be technically challenging in the obese...more
  • Previous studies reported increased incidence of gallstone formation after gastrectomy. However, there were few reports about factors other than surgical technique….more
  • Gallstones commonly develop after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and other bariatric surgery; however, incidence of gallstone development after SG has not been adequately studied..more
  • Evidence that the ABCG5/G8-independent pathway plays a determinant role in cholesterol gallstone formation in mice...more

Treatment for Gallstone

  • Intrahepatic biliary stricture is a major cause of treatment failure for intrahepatic stones and stone recurrence. To prevent recurrent cholangitis or cholangiocarcinoma, complete removal of intrahepatic gallstones is very important…..more
  • Treatment options for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...more
  • EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of gallstones…..more
  • Surgical and Nonsurgical Management of Gallstones...more
  • Two-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy method appeared to have better acceptability among patients due to lower pain score and better cosmesis...more

Prevention of Gallstone

  • Lowers the risk of gallstone disease compared with non-use, especially for cholecystectomy due to gallstone disease….more
  • Diets high in fat content also reduced gallstones, compared with those with low fat content (risk ratio, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.61)...more
  • Moderate intake of alcohol decreases the risk for symptomatic gallstone disease….more
  • Coffee consumption is related to a significantly decreased risk of gallstone disease....more
  • Melatonin prevents pigment gallstone formation…..more
  • The intake of all alcoholic beverage types is inversely associated with the risk of cholecystectomy...more
  • Regular vitamin C supplementation and, to a lesser extent, increased physical activity and total cholesterol levels are associated with a reduced prevalence of gallstones...more
  • Study suggest a protective role of magnesium consumption in the prevention of symptomatic gallstone disease among men....more

Risk factors for Gallstone

  • Age and fatty liver in both sexes were found to be risk factors for gallstone disease (GSD)...more
  • Study suggests that metabolic syndrome is related to gallstone disease. Waist circumference and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are all associated with GSD….more
  • Patients with osteoporosis in Taiwan have a higher risk of developing gallstone than the general population....more
  • HCV infection is a risk factor for gallstone disease in liver cirrhosis….more
  • Study suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a diet rich in animal fats and refined sugars and poor in vegetable fats and fibers are significant risk factors for gallstone formation….more
  • Even moderate increases in BMI may increase the risk of gallbladder disease....more
  • A very strong positive association between diabetes mellitus and risk of GSD in the patients….more
  • The major reported risk factors for gallstones are illiteracy, followed by consumption of green chilies and fried food, and early marriages in southern Sindh, Pakistan....more

Systematic reviews

  • Gallstone disease or cholecystectomy alone is also an independent risk factor for pancreatic carcinogenesis....more
  • Gallstones increase the risk of colonic adenoma….more
  • Gallstone disease is associated with rectal cancer….more
  • Is gallstone disease associated with inflammatory bowel diseases? A meta-analysis….more
  • The association between BMI and gallbladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis....more

Treatment with Medicinal Herbs

  • Blue Flag (Iris versicolor) – Dose – 0.6-2 g dried rhizome in tea, 1-2 ml liquid extract (1:1 in 45% alcohol) 3x/day; 4-12 ml tincture.
  • Brooklime (Veronica beccabunga)- Dose – Shoots eaten like cress; Decoction may be eaten freely.  
  • Masterwort (Peucedanum ostruthium) – Dose – 1 tsp root in cold infusion; 500-2000 mg powered root 2-3 x/day; 4-8 ml liquid rhizome extract.
  • Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) – Dose – 250-500 mg root/day; 3 g dry root: 15 ml alcohol/15 ml water; 2-3 ml root tincture 3-4x/day.

Reference: Handbook of Medicinal Herbs (2006)


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