Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy

Facts about Diabetic retinopathy

  • Diabetic eye disease comprises a group of eye conditions that affect people with diabetes. 
  • Early detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy can reduce the risk of vision loss by 95%.
  • Prior to age 40, diabetic retinopathy affects Caucasians more frequently than other races.
  • Diabetic retinopathy currently affects over 5.3 million Americans age 18 or over, or just over 2.5 percent of this population. This represents a 10.5 percent increase in disease prevalence from 1990, when 4.8 million Americans were affected.

Research scope in Diabetic retinopathy

  • It has been demonstrated that siRNA can be efficiently delivered into the rat retina using lipid-based nanocarriers, and some of the lipoplexes loaded with siRNA silencing HuR expression are potential candidates to manage retinal diseases.
  • Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus affecting about one third of diabetic adults. Despite its prevalence, treatment options are limited and often implemented only in the later stages of the disease.
  • Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of new-onset blindness. The roles of microRNAs in diabetic retinopathy are largely unknown. 
  • JXR have protective effect of diabetic retinopathy and its mechanism may be associated with the obvious hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect.

Treatment for Diabetic retinopathy

  • Calcium dobesilate was significantly associated with improving retinal microaneurysms (RR: 0.62, 95%CI: 0.42-0.90, P=0.01), retinal hemorrhages (RR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17-0.88, P=0.02).
  • Combination of Liuwei Dihuang Pill (LDP) and Ginkgo Leaf Tablet (GLT) could effectively prevent and treat the development of DR in T2DM patients.
  • Transplantation of IL-10-transfected EPCs significantly improved EPCs-mediated retinal vascular repair and subsequently suppressed NPDR progression. This was associated with inflammation suppression, at least partly via inhibiting the NF-kB signal pathway. Transplantation of IL-10-transfected EPCs may be a new strategy fortreatment of NPDR.

Prevention of Diabetic retinopathy

  • In patients with diabetes, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors reduce the risk of diabetic retinopathy, and increase the possibility of diabetic retinopathy regression. ACE inhibitors might be better than angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARBs) for treating diabetic retinopathy, and might exert the most beneficial effect on diabetic retinopathy of all widely used antihypertensive drug classes.
  • In type 2 diabetes mellitus, MUFA and oleic acid intake were inversely associated with DR.
  • Variations within the AKR1B1 gene are highly significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy development.

Risk factors for Diabetic retinopathy

  • rs7903146 appeared more likely to be a promising genetic biomarker of diabetic retinopathy in Caucasians.
  • Serum Lp(a) levels are significantly raised in patients with diabetic retinopathy as compared to those with no retinopathy.
  •  Individuals with myopia exhibit a decreased risk of developing DR or vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR).
  • Magnesium deficiency was found to be statistically significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy.
  • Meta-analysis of existing data suggested that MCP-1 2518 A/G polymorphism affected the risk of presence and progression of DR in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • Serum levels of copeptin are associated with type 2 diabetes and diabetic complications in Chinese population.
  • Among insulin users, abdominal obesity was found to be a significant predictor of DR

Systematic reviews

  • Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy…more
  • A Systematic Meta-Analysis of Genetic Association Studies for Diabetic Retinopathy..more
  • Association between a vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphism (rs2146323) and diabetic retinopathy: a meta-analysis…more
  • Meta-analysis of variant rs 7903146 of TCF7L2 gene with secondary complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus..more

References

Risk scope

  • Pharmacol Res. 2016 Jul 27;111:713-720. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2016.07.042. [Epub ahead of print]
  • J Cell Physiol. 2016 Jul 29. doi: 10.1002/jcp.25506. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2016 Jul 14
  • Chin J Integr Med. 2016 Jun 23. [Epub ahead of print]

Risk factors

  • PLoS One. 2016 Apr 8;11(4)
  • Indian J Ophthalmol. 2007 May-Jun;55(3):195-8
  • Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2016 Jan;111:1-9
  • J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2000;75(3-4):323-33
  • Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2016 Jul 30;120:40-46
  • J Diabetes Complications. 2016 Jul 25. pii: S1056-8727(16)30296-3
  • Indian J Ophthalmol. 2016 Jun;64(6):440-5. doi: 10.4103/0301-4738.187668

Prevention

  • Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015 Apr;3(4):263-74
  • Nutr Metab (Lond). 2016 Jun 4;13:40
  • Diabetes. 2009 Sep;58(9):2137-47

Treatment

  • Sci China Life Sci. 2015 Jan;58(1):101-7
  • Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2016 Jun;36(6):674-7
  • Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2016 Jul 12. [Epub ahead of print]

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