Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer

Cervical

Facts about Cervical Cancer

  • Most women with cervical cancer are diagnosed before the age of 50; from 2006-2010, the median age was 49.4 However, older women remain at risk. More than 20% of new cases are diagnosed in women over 65. Cervical cancer in women younger than age 20 is rare.
  • In the U.S., African-American women have the highest rate of cervical cancer, followed by Hispanics, Caucasians, American Indian/Alaska Natives, and Asian American/Pacific Islanders. Mortality rates are highest for African American women.

Epidemiology and burden of Cervical Cancer

Treatment for Cervical Cancer

  • Paclitaxel-carboplatin is an active and well-tolerated regimen as a first line therapy for the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. (Int J Gynecol Cancer.2013 May;23(4):743-8)
  • Weekly topotecan is effective as second- or third-line treatment in patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. Median progression-free interval was observed as 5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.75-4 months) and median overall survival as 7 months (95% CI: 6-8.7 months). (Med Oncol. 2009;26(2):210-4)
  • Treatment with concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy plus radiotherapy improves overall survival over various controls in women with locally advanced cervical cancer, large stage IB tumours (prior to surgery) and high-risk early-stage disease (following surgery). (Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol).2002 Jun;14(3):203-12)
  • Nimotuzumab is well tolerated and may have a role as second or third treatment of advanced cervical cancer. The median PFS and OS rates were 163 days (95% CI, 104 to 222), and 299 days (95% IC, 177 to 421) respectively. (Cancer Biol Ther.2015;16(5):684-9)
  • High-dose oral UFT maintenance treatment prolongs the disease-free survival and OS of patients with uterine cervical cancer, particularly of those with advanced disease. (J Gynecol Oncol.2015 Jul;26(3):193-200)

Prevention of Cervical Cancer

Risk factors for Cervical Cancer

  • Long-term use of oral contraceptives increases the risk of cervical carcinoma (odds ratio 0.73; 95% CI 0.52-1.03) by up to four-fold in women who are positive for cervical HPV DNA. (2002 Mar 30;359(9312):1085-92)
  • Smoking increases the risk of cervical cancer among HPV positive women, an excess risk was observed among cases of squamous cell carcinoma for current smokers (OR 2.30, 95%CI 1.31-4.04) and ex-smokers (OR 1.80, 95%CI 0.95-3.44). (Cancer Causes Control.2003 Nov;14(9):805-14)
  • Patients suffering from Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) apparently have a higher risk of cervical cancer. (Eur J Gynaecol Oncol.2003;24(5):401-4)
  • Use of oral contraceptive pill use for more than 3 years is associated with high risk of cervical cancer OR: 2.57 (95% CI 1.22-5.49). (2002 Mar 30;359(9312):1085-92)
  • An increased risk has been observed in women who drinks five or more cups/day of caffeinated coffee compared to women who reported drinking none (HR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.10-2.95). (Cancer Causes Control. 2008 Dec; 19(10): 1365–1372)

Systematic reviews

  • Screening for cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis...more
  • Risk Factors and Other Epidemiologic Considerations for Cervical Cancer...more
  • Cervical cancer and sexual lifestyle…more
  • Cervical cancer screening, diagnosis and treatment interventions for racial and ethnic minorities: a systematic review...more
  • A systematic review of quality of life and sexual function of patients with cervical cancer after treatment...more

Treatment with Medicinal Herbs

  • Loosestrife (Lysimachia vulgaris) – Dose – Mostly food farmacy. 4-6 g powered seed; 1-2 g pollen; 3-5 drams root tea
  • Soaptree (Quillaja saponaria Molina) – Dose – 1.5 g root/day; 1 tsp root in cold tea; 0.4-1.5 g (1/8 to 1/3 tsp) bark/day; 0.4 g/cup bark tea; 2-4 fl oz bark extract; 1-2 g bark extract  
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) – Dose- five veggies per day

Reference: Handbook of Medicinal Herbs (2006)

Herbals

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