Brain tumor

Brain tumor

Brain

Definition

  • A brain tumor or intracranial neoplasm occurs when abnormal cells form in different parts of the brain. There are two main types of tumors: malignant/cancerous and benign tumors. Such tumor can occur at any stage of life and the cause is also unclear. The most common symptoms include headache, seizures, walking problems, nausea, vomiting, changes in vision and speech.

Epidemiology and burden of Brain Tumor

  • Gliomas account for more than 70% of all brain tumors and of these, glioblastoma are the most frequent and malignant histologic type (as per WHO data). (Methods Mol Biol.2009;472:323-42)
  • In USA, incidence rate for primary brain tumors is 18.1 per 100 000 person-years with 2-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year observed survival rates of 62%, 54%, 45%, and 30%, respectively. (Neuro Oncol. 2010 Jun; 12(6): 520–527)
  • The incidence rate of all primary malignant and non-malignantbrain and other CNS tumors is 22.36 cases per 100,000 (7.18 per 100,000 for malignant tumors and 15.18 per 100,000 for non-malignant tumors). (http://www.cbtrus.org/factsheet/factsheet.html)

Research scope in Brain Tumor

  • Compared with the peripheral tumor, glioma is very difficult to treat. Not only because it has general features of tumor, but also it’s therapeutic has been restricted by the brain-blood barrier (BBB). (Mol Pharm.2016 May 2;13(5):1599-607)
  • Study demonstrates that KCa3.1 channels are involved in the inhibitory effects exerted by the glioma microenvironment on infiltrating M/MΦ, suggesting a possible role as therapeutic targets in glioma. (Cell Death Dis.2016 Apr 7;7:e2174)
  • Studies have shown that alterations in microRNAs play a role in highly invasive malignant glioma, but detail mechanism still unknown. (2016 May 3;7(18):26388-99)
  • NG2 targets tumorigenic Rb inactivation in Pit1-lineage pituitary cells and can be used for further research including preclinical testing of novel therapies. (Endocr Relat Cancer.2016 May;23(5):445-56)
  • While brain metastases (BM) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, the needs of BM patients and their caregivers (CGs) remain largely unknown. (J Cancer Educ.2016 Apr 4)
  • ZEB1 is a promising therapeutic target for treating gliomas. (2016 Oct 27;35(43):5641-5652)
  • The study says that the role of female sex hormones in the development of glioma is still needs to be understood. (PLoS ONE8(7):e68695 · July 2013)

Prevention of Brain Tumor

  • Research shows that the risk for fatal brain cancer is decreased by 42.5% with running and walking energy expenditure. (Med Sci Sports Exerc.2014;46(5):927-32)
  • Inverse association between total coffee and tea consumption and risk of brain tumors (glioma) ((hazard ratio: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.97; P = 0.03). (Am J Clin Nutr.2010 Nov;92(5):1145-50)
  • The study has shown that Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) has an inhibitory effect on malignant brain tumors. (Neuro Oncol.2001 Jan;3(1):22-8)
  • Compared with normal weight, the underweight might have lower incidence on the risk of developing glioma (HR = 1.08, 95 % CI ranged 0.74 to 1.58, P = 0.678). (Chinese Neurosurgical Journal 2015 1:7).
  • Allergic condition is reversely associated with the risk of glioma (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.73-0.83, P < 0.001). (Tumour Biol.2014 Apr; 35(4):3875-80)

Risk factors for Brain Tumor

  • A decreased glioma risk is associated with ever-pregnancy compared with never-pregnancy [OR, 0.8; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.6-1.0]. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.2008 Oct;17(10):2663-70)
  • The studies have shown that the overweight (HR: 1.12, 95 % CI: 1.02 to 1.22) and obesity (HR: 1.12, 95 % CI: 1.02 to 1.22) are performed as a risk factor of developing glioma. (Chinese Neurosurgical Journal20151:7)
  • A significantly higher prevalence of hypertension is found in glioma patients for age categories 60–74 years [OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.02–1.84] and 75+ years (OR 2.37; 95% CI 1.34–4.21). (Ann Oncol (2004) 15 (8): 1256-1260)
  • Sugar intake and occupational exposure to carbon tetrachloride are independently and significantly associated with development of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). (J Neurooncol.2012 Sep;109(2):315-21)
  • Study shows that there is modest positive association between unprocessed red meat intake and risk of gliomas based almost entirely on case-control studies. (J Res Med Sci.2015 Jun;20(6):602-12)

Systematic reviews

  • Body mass index and risk of brain tumors: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis...more
  • Systematic review of wireless phone use and brain cancer and other head tumors...more
  • Quality of life and symptoms in pediatric brain tumor survivors: a systematic review…more
  • The worldwide incidence and prevalence of primary brain tumors: a systematic review and meta-analysis...more
  • The role of 5-aminolevulinic acid in brain tumor surgery: a systematic review...more

Treatment with Medicinal Herbs

  • Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) – Dose – 2-4 tbsp fresh leaf; 3-6 g dry leaf; 4.5 g dry leaf: 22 ml alcohol/23 ml water; 1 tsp herb/cup water 1-3 x/day; 1-2 g herb/cup several x/day; 3 tsp (~7.2 g) herb in hot tea
  • Malabar Tamarind (Garcinia cambogia) – Dose – 1500 mg/day; 1320 mg in 3 doses/day; 500 mg extract 3x/day; 500 mg plant extract + 100 µg nickel chromium 3 x/day; 800 mg plant extract + 50 mg caffeine + 40 µg chromium picolinate 3 x/day; 1500 mg plant extract + 1200 mg I-carnitine + 600 µg chromium picolinate/day  
  • Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum) – Dose – 1-2 tsp chopped leaf/cup water, up to 3x/day; 0.5-1 tsp up to 3 x/day; 1-2 g as tea, 3x/day; 2-4 tsp fresh herb; 1-2 g dry herb; 105 g dry herb: 7 ml alcohol/8 ml water 

Reference: Handbook of Medicinal Herbs (2006)

Herbals

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