- Medical treatment HF burns consists of local application of topical calcium gels, subcutaneous injection of calcium gluconate, and intravenous or intra-arterial infusion of calcium gluconate…more
- Current recommendations are to initiate formal intravascular fluid resuscitation when the surface area burned is greater than 20%…more
- Isotonic crystalloids, hypertonic solutions and colloids are good options to restore the plasma fluid…more
- Metabolic acidosis should be treated with bicarbonate and lactate buffers…more
- Sucralfate Cream promotes rapid epithelialisation of second degree burns with minimal said effects..more
First aid for chemical burns:
- Irrigation should be done by keeping the affected area under running tap water/shower to neutralize/flush away the noxious chemical; 2 hours in case of acid burns and 12 hours in case of alkali burns.
- Water is contraindicated as a first aid measure in chemical burns caused by the heavy metals like sodium, potassium and calcium.
- Irrigation should continue even during the transport to the hospital.
- Never apply acid to base, or base to acid as it can cause exothermic reaction generating heat resulting in further damage.
- Litmus paper, if available, can be used to confirm complete removal of acid or alkali.
- Accidentally swallowed caustic chemicals should not be treated by inducing vomiting. Instead, milk should be given to drink to act as a buffer….more
First aid for chemical burns of the eye/cornea:
- Immediate copious irrigation of the involved eye with normal saline or water should be commenced
- Use of high pressure stream of water should be avoided as it may worsen the damage.
- Tilt the head of the victim towards the side of the affected eye to prevent the chemical from entering the canaliculi and nasolacrimal ducts.
- The victim should be seen by an ophthalmologist. The irrigation of the affected eye should be continued during the transport. Once in the hospital, copious irrigation should be continued with normal saline or Ringer lactate solution. It is recommended to flush the affected eye with a minimum of 2 l over 30 minutes to 1 hour and continue until the normal pH (7.4) of the eye surface has been restored.
- If a victim has combined facial and eye burns, the eye takes the precedence and the victim should be first seen by an ophthalmologist and later by the burn surgeon…more